### Measures of Central Tendency

• date 18th June, 2019 |
• by Prwatech |

# Measures of Central Tendency Tutorial

Measures of central tendency tutorial: Sound knowledge of statistics helps an analyst to make effective business decision plans. In this tutorial, one can learn of all measures of central tendency in Data science to calculate mean, median and mode and under what conditions the measures are appropriate to be used in data science.

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## Measures of Central Tendency Definition

Central Tendency is a descriptive summary of a dataset that represents the data into a single value. We use Central Tendency when we need to denote any collection of data into a unique single numeric  value.

## Measures of Central Tendency Example

Mr. A has scored the following marks:

 Sr.No Subject Marks 1 English 72 2 Mathematics 65 3 Statistics 81 4 Hadoop 75 5 Python 83 Total 376 ## How to calculate Central Tendency?

It can be calculated over three types of series:

Individual Series: Series of Data consisting only of single values.

Example: 2,3,4,512,45,56,79

Discrete Series: Series of data having a value and a frequency of the given value.

Example:

 X 5 10 15 20 25 F 6 8 12 6 3

Continuous Series: Series of data having a frequency in a continuous manner.

### Example

 Marks 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 Students 2 15 13 18 12 4

## Types of Measures of Central Tendency

There are three types of Measures of Central Tendency.

Mean

Median

Mode

### Mean

It is the most common method of finding Central Tendency. It is found by calculating the average value of the given dataset.

Individual Series Discrete Series Where –

N = Frequency.

f= frequency

x=Item

### Mean Example

 Items 10 20 30 40 50 Frequency 2 5 6 9 4

Xi
 Frequency fi
fixi
10 2 20
20 5 100
30 6 180
40 9 360
50 4 200
Total 26 860

x̅=860/26

x̅=33.07

Continuous Series

### Continuous series Mean Example

 Items 10 – 20 20 – 30 30 – 40 40 – 50 50 – 60 Frequency 2 5 6 9 4 Where –

N = Frequency.

f= frequency

x=item

 Items Frequency Xi fiXi 10 – 20 2 15 30 20 – 30 5 25 125 30 – 40 6 35 210 40 – 50 9 45 405 50 – 60 4 55 220 Total 26 990

x̅= 990 / 26

x̅=38.07.

### Median

The median is the value of the variable which divides the group into two equal parts, one part comprising all values greater and the other all values less than the median.

### Individual series

series in which only values are given

Arrange data into ascending order

M=(N+1)/2

Where: N= No of Items

### Individual series median example

 50 40 60 80 12 5 44 41 29

Now arrange data into ascending order:

 5 12 29 40 41 44 50 60 80

N = Total number of terms = 9

Now = (N+1)/2

= (9+1) / 2

= 10 / 2     =     5

Median = 5th term = 41.

When N is Even value:

 50 40 60 80 12 5 44 41 29 89

 5 12 29 40 41 44 50 60 80 89

N = Total number of terms = 9

Now = (N+1)/2

= (10+1) / 2

=  11 / 2     =     5.

Median = 42.5

### Discrete Series

Arrange data into ascending order

Calculate Cumulative frequency

M=(N+1)/2

Where: N=total of frequency

### Discrete Series median example

 X 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 F 4 6 9 7 1 12 15

 X F Cf Terms 10 4 =4 1-4 20 6 4+6=10 5-10 30 9 10+9=19 11-19 40 7 19+7=26 20-26 50 1 26+1=27 27-27 60 12 27+12=39 28-39 70 15 39+15=54 40-54 Total N=54 N=54 ### Continuous Series

In this case, cumulative frequencies are taken and then the value from the class-interval in which (N/2)th term lies is taken. Using the formula. Median can also be calculated from the formula given below:

M= L – Cf-N1/f × i:

Where L is the upper limit of the median class.

##### Important Working Hints

Take N1=N/2

Looking from the lowest to the upper side in the Ccolumn we get the value which is firstly numerically less than N1. It is the value of Cf.

We come one step down; make the terms in column ‘f and also the class interval to get f and L. L is taken from a lower limit of the class interval.

 Class Interval 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 Frequency 7 18 34 50 35 20 6

### Solution:

 Class Interval Frequency (f) Cumulative frequency (Cf) 0-10 7 7 10-20 18 25 20-30 34 59 30-40 50 109 40-50 35 144 50-60 20 164 60-70 6 170 N=170 ### Mode

It is the measure of central tendency targets towards pointing out the value that occurs most frequently in a series. This value, when it represents the data is known as the mode of the series. Mode simply refers to the value that occurs the maximum number of times in a distribution.

### Individual Series

In the case of individual series, we just have to inspect the item that occurs most frequently in the distribution. Further, this item is the mode of the series.

### Individual Series mode example

 2 1 3 6 6 5 1 2 2 3

 X Repetition 1 2 2 3 3 2 5 1 6 2

Here No 2 is repeated 3 times which is the highest.

Hence Mode = 2

Mode for Discrete Series

In discrete series, we have values of items with their corresponding frequencies. In essence, here the value of the item with the highest frequency will be the mode for the distribution.

Mode for Frequency Distribution

Lastly, for frequency distribution, the method for mode calculation is somewhat different. Here we have to find a modal class. The modal class is the one with the highest frequency value. The class just before the modal class is called the pre-modal class. Whereas, the class just after the modal class is known as the post-modal class. Lastly, the following formula is applied for calculation of mode:

Mode = l + h [(f1-f0)/(2f1-f0-f2)]

l= The lower limit of the modal class

f, f, f = Frequency corresponding to the modal class, post-modal class, and pre-modal class

### Mode Example

 Class Interval 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 Frequency 3 10 15 10 2

Answer: As the frequency for class 30-40 is maximum, this class is the modal class. Classes 20-30 and 40-50 are pre-modal and post-modal classes respectively. The mode is:

Mode= 30 + 10×[(15-10)/(2×15-10-10)]= 30+ 5= 35

These are the basic measures of central tendency in data science that a data analyst should know. Here, we have covered the basics of measures of central tendency in data science, its definition, types of measures of central tendency with example and how to calculate mean, median and mode.

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